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邵伟伟,林植华,韦力.2020.杀虫剂硫丹对中国虎纹蛙的毒性效应: 存活率、红细胞核异常及酶活性.动物学杂志,55(5):583-592.
杀虫剂硫丹对中国虎纹蛙的毒性效应: 存活率、红细胞核异常及酶活性
Toxic Effects of Insecticide Endosulfan on Chinese Tiger Frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis): Survival, Erythrocyte Nuclear Abnormality and Enzyme Activity
投稿时间:2020-05-11  修订日期:2020-08-24
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202005006
中文关键词:  硫丹  毒性  存活率  核异常  酶活性  中国虎纹蛙
英文关键词:Endosulfan  Toxicity, Survival  Nuclear abnormality  Enzyme activity  Hoplobatrachus chinensis
基金项目:浙江省自然科学基金项目(No. LY19C040001,LQ20C030001),生态环境部生物多样性调查、观测和评估项目(No. ZDGC2019-008,XYDC20-04-01),丽水市重点研究项目(No. 202000407)
作者单位E-mail
邵伟伟 丽水学院生态学院 丽水 浙江 323000 shaoweiwei2005@163.com 
林植华 丽水学院生态学院 丽水 浙江 323000 zhlin1015@126.com 
韦力 丽水学院生态学院 丽水 浙江 323000 weiliweili2007@163.com 
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中文摘要:
      农药的使用对水生动物有直接和间接的影响。本文研究了有机氯杀虫剂硫丹对中国虎纹蛙(Hoplobatrachus chinensis)蝌蚪的毒性效应。具体而言,首先检测了硫丹的安全浓度(SC),并在急性毒性实验中评估了硫丹的毒性等级。然后检测了外周血液中红细胞核形态异常,并在慢性毒性实验中测定了酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)和乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)的活性。结果表明,在急性毒性中,随着硫丹溶液浓度的增加和染毒时间的延长,蝌蚪的平均死亡率显著增加,即蝌蚪存活率取决于农药剂量和染毒的时长。硫丹对中国虎纹蛙蝌蚪的96 h半致死浓度LC50值为23.38 μg/L,安全浓度为2.34 μg/L,为剧毒性农药。在血液红细胞核异常实验中,观察到5种不同类型的细胞核异常:核碎裂、双核、不等分裂、核凹陷和核空洞。血液红细胞核异常率与农药浓度呈正相关。在酶活性检测中,三种酶的活性均受硫丹浓度的影响。与对照组相比,酸性磷酸酶(ACP)和碱性磷酸酶(AKP)活性随硫丹浓度的增加而降低,乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性随着硫丹浓度的增加呈先升高后降低。研究结果表明,硫丹对中国虎纹蛙蝌蚪具有很高的毒性,并证明了血液红细胞核异常和特定的代谢酶可以作为环境监测的生物标志物。
英文摘要:
      The utilization of various agricultural pesticides has both direct and indirect effects on aquatic animals. The toxic effects of organochlorine insecticide endosulfan on tadpoles of the Chinese tiger frog (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) were investigated in this study. Specifically, we first examined the safe concentration (SC) and evaluated the toxic rank of endosulfan in an acute toxicity assay. We then examined the blood biomarker (erythrocyte nuclear abnormality) and determined the metabolic enzyme activitie of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in a chronic toxicity test. In terms of the acute toxicity, the average mortality percentage of tadpoles significantly increased with increasing concentrations and exposure duration of endosulfan solution, indicating dose- and time-dependent lethality of this drug (Table 1). The half lethal concentration (LC50 value) of endosulfan for H. chinensis tadpoles at 96 h was 23.38 μg/L and the safe concentration was 2.34 μg/L (Table 2). Five different types of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities were observed: broken nucleus, binucleated, unequal division, karyopyknosis and anucleated (Fig. 1). The total frequencies of abnormal erythrocytes were positively correlated with pesticide concentrations (Table 3). Activities of all three enzymes were influenced. Compared with the control treatment, the activities of both ACP and AKP were decreased with increased endosulfan concentrations, while LDH activity was first increased and then decreased (Table 4). These findings suggest that endosulfan has a high toxicity for H. chinensis tadpoles and that the erythrocyte nuclear abnormality and particular metabolic enzymes may be considered as biomarkers for environmental monitoring.
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