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王琳,罗云超,李忠秋.2020.鸦科鸟类认知研究回顾.动物学杂志,55(6):806-831.
鸦科鸟类认知研究回顾
A Review of Cognitive Studies on Corvids
投稿时间:2020-05-18  修订日期:2020-10-27
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202006015
中文关键词:  鸦科动物  动物认知  推理能力  社会认知  比较心理学
英文关键词:Corvidae  Animal cognition  Reasoning ability  Social cognition  Comparative psychology
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31772470)
作者单位E-mail
王琳 南京大学生命科学学院动物行为与保护实验室 南京 210023 wanglin_nwsuaf@outlook.com 
罗云超 南京大学生命科学学院动物行为与保护实验室 南京 210023 luoyunchao@outlook.com 
李忠秋 南京大学生命科学学院动物行为与保护实验室 南京 210023 lizq@nju.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      动物认知能力高低及认知在动物中的进化是动物研究领域面对的难题之一。鸦科鸟类在工具使用、情景记忆、抑制控制等方面有着与类人猿媲美的优异表现。本文对过去三四十年间主要的鸦科鸟类认知研究进行了分类与汇总,并将上述认知研究划分为一般认知、物理认知、社会认知等三类。一般认知能力或者称为认知基础,是指具有普遍性的能力因素,是在解决不同问题时都能表现出来的相同的心理特质;物理认知指个体对自然规律的认知,主要包括客体永久性、数能力、工具的使用等;社会认知主要指个体对其他个体的心理状态、行为动机和意向作出推测与判断的过程。本文介绍了上述三类认知能力的主要研究范式,旨在为国内动物认知研究提供理论依据。目前的研究更多地集中于鸦属的鸟类,对于鸦科中其他鸟类或是雀形目中其他鸟类的认知研究尚不充足。此外,鸦科鸟类的社会性、分布范围、觅食策略等生态因素具有显著差异,在后续的研究中,我们应该关注生态因素对鸦科鸟类认知能力的影响,或是结合鸦科鸟类的生境及习性设计出更加合理的研究范式。
英文摘要:
      The level of cognitive ability and the evolution of cognition in animals are difficult problems in the field of animal research. Corvids are as good as apes in tool use, episodic memory, inhibition and inhibitory control, etc. This paper summarized the major cognitive studies on corvids in the past 3 to 4 decades, and classified these cognitive studies into 3 categories: fundamental cognition, physical cognition and social cognition. Fundamental cognition or the general cognitive ability refers to the ability to have general meanings, and is the same psychological characteristics that can be displayed in solving different cognitive problems; Physical cognition refers to an individual's cognition of the laws of nature, mainly including object permanence, numerical ability and the use of tools. Social cognition mainly refers to the process in which individuals speculate and judge other individuals' psychological states, behavioral motivations and intentions. We introduces the main research paradigms of the above three kinds of cognitive abilities in order to provide theoretical basis for animal cognitive research in China. At present, most studies are focused on birds of the genus Corvus, but not enough on other birds of Corvidae or other passerine birds. In addition, there are significant differences in natural histories or ecological factors such as the sociality, distribution range, and foraging strategies of Corvidae birds. For the follow-up researches, we suggest to pay attention to the impact of ecological factors on the cognitive ability, or design a more reasonable research paradigm based on the habitat and habit of corvids.
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