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陈星,赵联军,胡茜茜,刘明星,罗春平,蒋仕伟,古晓东,官天培.2020.岩羊在森林-草甸交错生境活动的季节特征.动物学杂志,55(6):692-701.
岩羊在森林-草甸交错生境活动的季节特征
The Seasonal Activity Patterns of Bharal (Pseudois nayaur) in Forest-Meadow Mosaic Habitat
投稿时间:2020-05-26  修订日期:2020-10-27
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202006002
中文关键词:  有蹄类  生存策略  栖息地  活动强度  季节变化  红外相机  岷山山系
英文关键词:Ungulate  Survival strategy  Habitat  Activity intensity  Seasonal variation  Camera-trapping  Minshan Mountain
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 31300319)
作者单位E-mail
陈星 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室 绵阳 621000 chenxing07mtx@163.com 
赵联军 王朗国家级自然保护区 平武 622550 38314562@qq.com 
胡茜茜 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室 绵阳 621000 1204887524@qq.com 
刘明星 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室 绵阳 621000 1948921361@qq.com 
罗春平 王朗国家级自然保护区 平武 622550 wlylg123@163.com 
蒋仕伟 王朗国家级自然保护区 平武 622550 chenxing07mtx@163.com 
古晓东 四川省林业和草原局 成都 610081 180793519@qq.com 
官天培 绵阳师范学院生态安全与保护四川省重点实验室 绵阳 621000 tp-guan@hotmail.com 
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中文摘要:
      资源的时空分布不均是野生动物形成季节性生境利用策略的主要动力。这种策略的形成为它们在环境波动时创造了生存机会。岩羊(Pseudois nayaur)主要分布在青藏高原,以草甸、流石滩生境为主要栖息地类型,而位于分布边缘的岩羊存在对森林-草甸交错区的利用情况。为了解岩羊边缘种群的空间利用特征和季节变化,并探究环境结构与物种分布的关系,本研究于2018年6月至2019年8月在四川王朗国家级自然保护区开展红外相机调查,根据监测结果利用列联表卡方检验、Bonferroni法和Post hoc testing检验综合分析岩羊在森林-草甸交错生境中活动的季节性特征。结果表明:1)岩羊在不同生境中的季节性活动强度存在极显著差异(χ2 = 503.50,df = 6,P < 0.05)。2)从不同生境的活动强度季节性变化看,岩羊在草甸的活动,以春季最强(活动频率44.4%,标化残差10.6),夏季最弱(5.3%,﹣17.4);在林缘的活动,以夏季最强(54.0%,6.6),秋季最弱(30.2%,﹣9.1);在林内的活动,以夏秋强(夏:40.7%,8.4;秋:45.0%,8.0),春季最弱(3.8%,﹣11.7)。3)从不同季节生境的活动强度判断,岩羊在夏、秋两季的活动多出现在林内(夏:45.9%,8.4;秋:26.8%,8.0),而冬、春两季的活动更多在草甸(春:20.6%,10.6;冬:49.4%,9.1),岩羊在夏季也较多出现在林缘(41.5%,6.6)。本研究结果显示,岷山北部的岩羊在夏、秋季对针叶林存在较多的季节性利用,可能与躲避高温有关。在全球气候变暖的背景下,高海拔地区气温与降水的显著变化将导致高山林线出现明显的交错和进退,进而影响着众多依赖森林和草甸生境生存的物种的分布。 关键词:有蹄类;生存策略;栖息地;活动强度;季节变化;红外相机;岷山山系
英文摘要:
      Resources distribution along temporal-spatial gradients shaped wildlife habitat use patterns. The shift of patterns when facing environment fluctuation can increase their survival chance. Bharal (Pseudois nayaur) mainly live in alpine meadow and rocky beach in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. At the edge of the distribution, however, they have the utilization of forest-meadow mosaic habitats (forest, forest edge and meadow). To understand Bharal’s habitat use patterns’ variation among seasons, we observed their activity within the forest-meadow mosaic habitats where probably provided different environment conditions and food resources in Wanglang national nature reserve. Based on one year camera-traps data (June 2018 to August 2019), we analyzed seasonal changes of Bharal’s activities in forest-meadow mosaic habitats by using crosstab method (Chi-square test), Bonferroni and Post hot testing. We found: 1) Bharal’s activity in mosaic habitats were varied significantly in different seasons (χ2 = 503.50, df = 6, P < 0.05), and 2) Bharal’s activities on meadow were most frequently observed during spring, their activities in the forest edge were most frequently observed in summer, and their activities within forest were frequently observed in both summer and autumn (Fig. 2, Table 3); 3) from the view of seasons, Bharal were prone to chose meadow during winter and spring and prone to chose forest & forest edge in both summer and autumn (Fig. 3, Table 3). We also found coniferous forest was useful and also available for population in these marginal distribution ranges to avoid extreme weather condition during summer or winter. Alpine forest edge may expand or retreat with global warming, which will lead to distribution changes of these animals that depend on alpine habitat.
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