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王永梅,唐文乔.2014.中国鲤形目鱼类的脊椎骨数及其生态适应性.动物学杂志,49(1):1-12.
中国鲤形目鱼类的脊椎骨数及其生态适应性
The Number of Vertebrae from Chinese Species of the Cypriniformes and Its Ecological Adaptation
投稿时间:2013-05-07  修订日期:2013-07-21
DOI:
中文关键词:  脊椎骨  肋骨  尾椎  生态适应性  鲤科
英文关键词:Vertebrae  Ribs  Caudal vertebrae  Ecological adaptability  Cyprinidae
基金项目:高等学校博士学科点专项科研基金项目(No.20123104110006);国家自然科学基金项目(No.30630051)
作者单位E-mail
王永梅 上海海洋大学鱼类研究室 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306  
唐文乔 上海海洋大学鱼类研究室 水产种质资源发掘与利用教育部重点实验室 上海 201306 wqtang@shou.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为探讨中国鲤形目鱼类脊椎骨数及其与系统发育和生态习性的相关性,采用X光透视照相法对鲤科(Cyprinidae)、鳅科(Cobitidae)、爬鳅科(Balitoridae)鱼类共157种的脊椎骨数、肋骨数和尾椎数进行了比较分析。结果显示,中国鲤形目鱼类的脊椎骨数30~52枚,均值39.5±4.4;肋骨数8~28对,均值15.3±3.1;尾椎数14~34枚,均值21.1±2.9。依据脊椎骨数、肋骨数、尾椎数对鲤科各亚科进行聚类,显示鲤科12个亚科可归为2大类:Ⅰ类包括雅罗鱼亚科、鲌亚科、鲴亚科、裂腹鱼亚科4亚科;Ⅱ类包括鲢亚科、 NFDA2 亚科、 NFDA7 亚科、鲃亚科、野鲮亚科、鳅 NFDA3 亚科、鲤亚科、 NFDA1 亚科8亚科。对鲤科89种所作的单因素方差分析显示,肉食性鱼类的肋骨数与脊椎骨数的比值显著小于植食性鱼类(P<0.05),而脊椎骨数、尾椎数则显著多于植食性鱼类(P<0.05)。中上层鱼类的脊椎骨数、尾椎数显著多于下层鱼类(P<0.05)。极小型鱼类的脊椎骨数、肋骨数以及肋骨数与脊椎骨数之比显著少于或小于大型鱼类(P<0.05)。表明鲤科鱼类的脊椎骨数与其生态习性及体型具有明显的相关性。
英文摘要:
      To investigate the number of vertebrae from Cypriniformes including Cyprinidae, Cobitidae and Balitoridae in China and its correlation with phylogenetic constraint and ecological adaptation, the number of vertebrae, ribs and caudal vertebrae were compared by X-ray photographic method. A total of 157 currently recognized species were analyzed. The results showed that the number of vertebrae 30 to 52, with average of 39.5±4.4, ribs 8 to 28, with average of 15.3±3.1, caudal vertebrae 14 to 34, with average of 21.1±2.9. Based on the cluster results of vertebrae, ribs and caudal vertebrae in number, the 12 subfamilies of the Cyprinidae were divided into two types. The type Ⅰ included the Leuciscinae, Cultrinae, Xenocyprininae, and Schizothoracinae. The type Ⅱ included the Danioninae, Hypophthalmichthyinae, Gobioninae, Gobiobotinae, Acheilognathinae, Barbinae, Labeoninae, and Cyprininae. One-way ANOVA analysis of 89 species from the Cyprinidae showed that the ratio of ribs to vertebrae in carnivorous fish was significantly lower than that in phytophagous fish (P<0.05), although more vertebrae and caudal vertebrae were seen in carnivorous fish (P<0.05). The pelagic fish had less vertebrae and caudal vertebrae than demersal fish (P<0.05). Relative to large-sized fishes, small-sized fishes had less vertebraes and ribs; the ratio of ribs to vertebrae number was significantly lower (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the vertebrae number of the Cyprinidae closely correlated with ecological habits and body size.
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