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王艺霖,刘伟,张国俊,耿德奇,张敏,郭秋林,卜艳珍,牛红星.2021.普氏蹄蝠栖息地选择的研究.动物学杂志,56(2):199-207.
普氏蹄蝠栖息地选择的研究
Study on Roost Selection of Hipposideros pratti
投稿时间:2020-09-16  修订日期:2021-03-11
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202102005
中文关键词:  普氏蹄蝠  栖息地选择  生态习性  干扰程度
英文关键词:Hipposideros pratti  Roost selection  Habits  Degree of disturbance
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. U1704102,No. 31172056)
作者单位E-mail
王艺霖 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 835864929@qq.com 
刘伟 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 2019117@htu.edu.cn 
张国俊 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 zgj003@126.com 
耿德奇 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 2436513440@qq.com 
张敏 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 229808253@qq.com 
郭秋林 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 810312987@qq.com 
卜艳珍 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 buyanzhen@htu.cn 
牛红星 河南师范大学生命科学学院 新乡 453007 hongxingniu@htu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了解普氏蹄蝠(Hipposideros pratti)栖息地的特征、微环境条件及影响该物种栖息地选择的因素,2016年6月至2019年9月,在我国中、南部的10个省或直辖市,对83个洞穴进行测量,记录洞穴微环境,评估洞穴内普氏蹄蝠的受干扰程度,对普氏蹄蝠生态习性进行初步观察。运用独立样本t检验和卡方检验评估普氏蹄蝠的栖息地偏好,主成分分析检验影响栖息地选择的因素。结果显示,有蝙蝠栖息的洞穴66个,有普氏蹄蝠栖息的洞穴17个,普氏蹄蝠的繁殖地主要是天然洞穴;与其他蝙蝠栖息地相比,普氏蹄蝠栖息地具有更高的洞穴最大高度与更低的洞内温度;与普氏蹄蝠非繁殖地相比,繁殖地具有更大的洞穴入口宽度、更高的温度和湿度及更短的水源距离;与非冬眠地相比,冬眠地相对湿度高而光照度低。调查发现,多数栖息地被严重干扰,许多已被开发为旅游景点,可能严重影响普氏蹄蝠的种群数量;普氏蹄蝠通常栖息在距离洞口不远的最高处,个体间保持10 ~ 15 cm的距离,傍晚出洞时间晚于小体型蝙蝠,冬眠期为11月中下旬至次年4月,冬眠时一般栖息在洞穴深处。研究表明,普氏蹄蝠对栖息地具有强烈选择性。
英文摘要:
      In order to understand the characteristic and microclimate of roosts used by Hipposideros pratti and as well as influencing factors of roost selection, from June 2016 to September 2019, we have investigated 83 potential roosts in ten provinces or municipality located in central and southern China (Fig. 1). Thirteen variables related to the roosts were measured by GPS locator, laser distance meter and digital thermo-hygrometer; the degree of disturbance was assessed based on the frequency of human activities. We also observed the habits of H. pratti continuously during the field work. SPSS was used to conduct independent sample t test, chi-square test and principal component analysis (PCA) to analyzed those data. The habitat preferences of H. pratti showed the significance level at P < 0.05 by the the independent sample t test and chi-square test. The factors affecting roost selection were determined by using principal component analysis. As shown in Table 1, 66 of 83 roosts were occupied by bats and 17 roosts were used by H. pratti. The bats were breeding in the primarily natural caves. As shown in Table 2, comparing the 17 roosts occupied by H. pratti, and the rest 49 roosts occupied by other species of bats. it was found that the former’s roosting located in a height position with the lower temperature. As shown in Table 2 and Table 3, breeding caves used by H. pratti were closer to the nearest water source and had wider entrances, higher temperatures and higher relative humidity than non-breeding caves. However, the hibernation caves had higher relative humidity and lower illuminance than non-hibernation caves. As shown in Table 4, most of the caves had been seriously disturbed, many caves were used as tourist attractions which may disturber the population of H. pratti and resulted the bat population reduction. During the field work, it was found that H. pratti always perched on the highest point near the entrances of roosts, keeping distance of 10﹣15 cm from each other. In the evening, they often came out of caves later than bats with small-body size co-inhabited roosts with H. pratti. H. pratti began to hibernate from mid and late November to April of the following year and they always hibernated in the depth of the cave. In conclusion, H. pratti had strong selection for their roosts.
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