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何海燕,王楠,董路.2021.北京城市鸟类对食源植物利用规律.动物学杂志,56(4):491-499.
北京城市鸟类对食源植物利用规律
A Case Study to Investigate the Foraging Pattern of Urban Birds on Edible Plants in Beijing
投稿时间:2020-11-02  修订日期:2021-06-10
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202104002
中文关键词:  城市鸟类  食源植物  多样性  丰富度  季节规律
英文关键词:Urban birds  Food plant  Diversity  Richness  Seasonal pattern
基金项目:北京市科学技术委员会资助项目子课题(No. D171100007217002)
作者单位E-mail
何海燕 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 北京 202021200060@mail.bnu.edu.cn 
王楠 北京林业大学生态与自然保护学院 北京 wangnan761227@bjfu.edu.cn 
董路 北京师范大学生命科学学院生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室 donglu@bnu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      园林植物为城市生活的鸟类提供重要食物资源,园林中的植物配置会影响城市中鸟类的种类、数量和群落结构。研究城市鸟类与食源植物的关系,可明确鸟类对食源植物的取食关系,为提高城市鸟类多样性提供技术支撑。2017至2019年,在北京市范围内,以直接观察法和野外照片识别法记录鸟类取食的食源植物种类和数量。共选取6个研究地点,每个研究地设一条样线,圆明园样线长度为2.52 km、颐和园为3.12 km、北京植物园为3.02 km、奥林匹克森林公园为2.76 km、北京林业大学为1.38 km和北京语言大学为1.6 km。共记录取食植物鸟类49种,食源植物56种。吸引鸟类物种最多的植物为金银木(Lonicera maackii),之后依次为圆柏(Sabina chinensis)、柿树(Diospyros kaki)、油松(Pinus tabuliformis)、榆树(Ulmus pumila)等。取食植物种类最多的鸟类为灰喜鹊(Cyanopica cyana),之后依次为白头鹎(Pycnonotus sinensis)、麻雀(Passer montanus)、燕雀(Fringilla montifringilla)、喜鹊(Pica pica)等。吸引鸟类多样性最高的园林植物为金银木、柿树、油松、银杏(Ginkgo biloba)、毛白杨(Populus tomentosa)等。取食植物多样性最高的鸟类为灰喜鹊、白头鹎、麻雀、燕雀、喜鹊等。鸟类取食食源植物集中在10月至翌年5月,高峰期在11和12月,其中,取食浆果的高峰期在11和12月,取食坚果的高峰期在11月至翌年1月,取食叶芽的高峰期在3和4月以及11和12月,取食花的高峰期在3和4月。北京市鸟类取食食源植物季节性明显,为提高北京城市鸟类的数量,园林建设中可加大圆柏、侧柏(Platycladus orientalis)等冬季可以长时间为鸟类提供食物的园林植物比例,为鸟类在食物资源最为短缺的冬末春初季节提供充足食物资源。
英文摘要:
      Garden plants provide important food resources for urban birds, and the configuration of garden plants will affect the species, number and community structure of birds in the city. The study on the relationship between urban birds and food plants can clarify the feeding relationship between birds and food plants and provide technical support for improving the diversity of urban birds. From 2017 to 2019, the species and quantity of food plants eaten by birds in Beijing were recorded by direct observation and field photo recognition. Six research sites were selected, and one transversal line was set for each study site. The length of transversal line was 2.52 km in Old Summer Palace, 3.12 km in The Summer Palace, 3.02 km in Beijing Botanical Garden, 2.76 km in Olympic Forest Park, 1.38 km in Beijing Forestry University and 1.6 km in Beijing Language and Culture University. A total of 49 species of plant-feeding birds and 56 species of food plants were recorded. The plants that attract the most bird species are Lonicera maackii, followed by Sabina chinensis, Diospyros kaki, Pinus tabuliformis, Ulmus pumila, etc., and the birds that feed on the most plant species are Azure-winged Magpie (Cyanopica cyana), followed by Light-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus sinensis), Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus), Brambling (Fringilla montifringilla), Oriental Magpie (Pica pica) and so on. The garden plants that attract the highest diversity of birds are L. maackii, D. kaki, Pinus tabuliformis, Ginkgo biloba, Populus tomentosa, etc., and the birds that feed on the highest diversity are Azure-winged Magpie, Light-vented Bulbul, Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Brambling, Oriental Magpie and so on. Birds feed on the source plants from October to May of the following year, and the peak period is from November to December, in which the peak of berry feeding is from November to December, the peak of eating nuts is from November to January of the following year, the peak of feeding on leaf buds is from November to December to March to April of the following year, and the peak of feeding on flowers is from March to April. The seasonality of birds feeding on food source plants in Beijing is obvious, so it is necessary to increase the proportion of garden plants that can provide food for birds for a long time in winter, such as Sabina vulgaris, Platycladus orientalis and other food resources to provide sufficient food resources for birds in late winter and early spring. As important food resources for birds living in cities, the assemblage of ornamental plants in gardens and parks plays a significant role in species composition and abundance of urban bird communities. Understanding the relationship between urban birds and edible plants can provide technical support for conservation of urban birds diversity, but remains poorly studied. From 2017 to 2019, species and abundance of plants that birds forage on were recorded in multiple sites in Beijing, by direct observation and field photo identification. The diversities of birds and plants were calculated using Shannon index, and the niche widths were calculated by Levins (1968) model. The chi - square test was used to assess the differences in the type of food that birds forage on among months. A total of 49 species of birds foraging on 56 species of plants were recorded. The plant foraged by most bird species was L. maackii, followed by S. chinensis, D. kaki, Pinus tabuliformis, U. pumila, etc. Among the bird species, Azure-winged Magpie, was recorded foraging on most plant species followed by Light-vented Bulbul, Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Brambling, Common Magpie (Pica pica), etc (Fig. 1). Plant-foraging in birds was concentrated from October to the following May, and peaked in November and December (Fig. 2), among which the main food resources change across months. Berries were mostly foraged from November to December, nuts from November to the following January, leaf buds from November to December and March to April, and the peak of flower-foraging occur from March to April (Fig. 3). Among the recorded plants, S. chinensis and Platycladus orientalis served as the main food resource for a long time in winter. Therefore, in order to increase number of birds in Beijing, the proportions of these plants should be increased to provide sufficient food resources in late winter and early spring when food resources are most scarce.
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