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周景英,贾茹,钱英,魏秀宏,张菊,宝壮,岳伟,姜尊礼,王振华,陈海山,张国钢.2022.内蒙古图牧吉大鸨种群动态及时空分布稳定性.动物学杂志,57(3):368-375.
内蒙古图牧吉大鸨种群动态及时空分布稳定性
Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Population and Distribution of the Great Bustard (Otis tarda) at Tumuji, Inner Mongolia, China
投稿时间:2021-01-25  修订日期:2022-03-16
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202203005
中文关键词:  大鸨  种群动态  雌雄比  时空分布  图牧吉
英文关键词:Great Bustard, Otis tarda  Population dynamics  Sex ratio  Spatial and temporal distribution  Tumuji
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(No. 2019YFA0607103),国家林业和草原局《珍稀濒危物种调查监管与行业规范》项目(No. 213021120305)
作者单位E-mail
周景英 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与自然保护研究所全国鸟类环志中心国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 zjytmj@163.com 
贾茹 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与自然保护研究所全国鸟类环志中心国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091 2353120380@qq.com 
钱英 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 332386724@qq.com 
魏秀宏 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 2224589516@qq.com 
张菊 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 380879154@qq.com 
宝壮 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 chuangyi6759@163.com 
岳伟 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 987532766@qq.com 
姜尊礼 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 zjytmj@163.com 
王振华 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600  
陈海山 内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区管理局 扎赉特旗 137600 337292225@qq.com 
张国钢 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与自然保护研究所全国鸟类环志中心国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091 zm7672@126.com 
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中文摘要:
      大鸨(Otis tarda)是我国I级重点保护野生鸟类,对大鸨重要栖息地种群数量的变化趋势进行研究,将为大鸨及其栖息地的保护提供科学依据。2017年至2020年,对内蒙古图牧吉国家级自然保护区内及周边的大鸨种群数量动态进行了全面调查,共选择33个监测地点,对大鸨的数量、性别和分布地点进行了调查。结果表明,大鸨种群数量从2017年193只增加至2020年253只;大鸨1月的越冬种群数量从2017年67只减少至2019年55只,2020年重新恢复至67只。各月大鸨种群数量呈现较大的变化,数量高峰期分别是5月和10月。12月至次年2月,越冬种群数量50 ~ 70只。雌性大鸨从3月开始监测到,数量高峰值出现在4月和5月,达到50 ~ 70只,不同的年份略有差别;6月之后数量开始下降,至9月开始略有回升,在10月以后,野外基本观察不到雌性个体。在野外易于观察的4月,2017至2020年4年中雌雄比的平均值是1︰2。2017年和2018年,大鸨在马鞍山区域分布较多,数量也较为稳定。然而进入2019年,分布地点减少,这可能与当地人类活动的干扰有关;2020年保护区功能区进行了调整,将2014年调整出保护区范围的马鞍山区域重新划入保护区中,湿地和草地面积均有所增加,大鸨分布地点数量逐渐恢复。针对目前保护区存在的问题,建议采取退耕还草、加强保护空缺管理及禁牧等保护措施对大鸨及其栖息地进行保护。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] The Great Bustard (Otis tarda) is a Class I protected species in China. Analyzing the population trends of the Great Bustard in important habitats will provide a scientific basis for protection and management of the species and its habitat. [Methods] From 2017 to 2020, a total of 33 monitoring sites were selected (Fig. 1) and comprehensive surveys were conducted on spatial and temporal changes in the population and distribution of Great Bustards in the Tumuji National Nature Reserve (eastern Inner Mongolia) and nearby areas. The number, sex and distribution sites of the Great bustard were investigated. [Results] The population of Great Bustard in our area increased from 193 ind in 2017 to 253 ind in 2020. The monthly number of birds varied, with the peaks in May (> 200 ind) and October (> 100 ind) and fewer in December to February of the following year. The winter population was approximately 50﹣70 individuals (Fig. 2). The winter population in January declined from 67 ind in 2017 to 55 ind in 2019 but recovered to 67 ind in 2020. Females were recorded from March of each year, with the peaks in April and May reaching to 50﹣70 individuals; their numbers declined in June but increased again slightly in September. No females were observed in the wild after October. In April, when Great Bustards were easy to observe in the field, the average female-to-male ratio was 1︰2 (Fig. 3). In 2017 and 2018, the population was stable and widely distributed in the Maanshan area of southeastern Tumiji Nature Reserve, but the number of distribution sites decreased in 2019 (Fig. 4), which may be related to the increase of human disturbances. The functional areas of the nature reserve were adjusted in 2020, and the Maanshan area, which had been removed in 2014, was again zoned as part of the protected area; this increased the area of wetlands and grasslands (Table 1), and the number of Great Bustard distribution sites was gradually restored. [Conclusions] The surveys indicated that the population and distribution of Great Bustards are greatly affected by human disturbances. In order to manage the ongoing problems in Tummuji National Nature Reserve and strengthen the protection of the Great Bustard populations and their habitat, some protective measures are needed, such as restoring farmland to grasslands, strengthening the management of conservation gaps and banning grazing.
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