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王琦,朱宜君,颜文博,余发升,符运南,曾治高.2021.圈养和迁地坡鹿释放早期的空间行为比较.动物学杂志,56(4):500-508.
圈养和迁地坡鹿释放早期的空间行为比较
Early Post-release Spatial Behavior of Captive and Introduced Eld’s Deer
投稿时间:2021-03-04  修订日期:2021-06-15
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202104003
中文关键词:  海南坡鹿  重引入  释放早期  运动
英文关键词:Eld’s deer  Reintroduced  Early post-release  Movement
基金项目:中国科学院野外站联盟项目(No. KFJ-SW-YW028)
作者单位E-mail
王琦 陕西理工大学生物科学与工程学院 汉中 wangqis6@163.com 
朱宜君 陕西理工大学生物科学与工程学院 汉中 734773204@qq.com 
颜文博 陕西理工大学生物科学与工程学院 汉中 yanwb_26@163.com 
余发升 海南大田国家级自然保护区管理局 东方 fashengy89@163.com 
符运南 海南大田国家级自然保护区管理局 东方 dtyunnan@126.com 
曾治高 中国科学院动物研究所 北京 zengzhg@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      重引入作为野生动物保护的一种重要手段,掌握释放早期动物的运动特征对于提高重引入动物的生存率和种群重建成功率具有重要意义。本文为释放到海南大田国家级自然保护区的5只海南坡鹿(Cervus eldi hainanus)佩戴GPS项圈,研究分析迁地野生个体(3只)和圈养个体(2只)释放早期对新环境适应的运动差异。研究结果显示,圈养坡鹿的运动强度和扩散距离到第四个时期都显著增加,它们的累积利用面积也是持续增加的,说明圈养坡鹿释放后持续进行扩散探索。野生坡鹿的运动强度释放后没有显著变化,扩散距离到第三个时期显著减少,它们的累积利用面积也是减少的,说明野生坡鹿经过最初扩散以后返回到原初释放地。圈养坡鹿释放后每天的活动节律由白昼活动高峰模式转变到晨昏活动高峰模式;野生坡鹿释放后的活动节律一直是晨昏活动高峰模式。研究结果显示,野生个体对新环境的适应能力相比圈养个体更强。
英文摘要:
      Reintroductions have been increasingly used in wildlife conservation. Understanding movement patterns in the early post-release period is critical for the survival and reestablishment of reintroduced animals. However, there was little information available on early post-release movement of reintroduced Eld’s deer (Cervus eldi hainanus). Using GPS collars for five reintroduced Eld’s deer in the Datian National Nature Reserve, early post-release movement of reintroduced Eld’s deer (2 captive-breeding animals, 3 wild animals) have been studied. We defined early post-release period as the first dry season (March – June) after release to control for potential seasonal effects on deer movements. Movements were compared between each 30-day period. Four time periods were included for captive-breeding deer and three time periods for wild deer as they were released in end of March. Movement and dispersal distance were processed by R package “adehabitatLT” in R3.5.1. Movement rates were compared between 30-day periods using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with post hoc Tukey’s HSD test. Dispersal distance between 30-day periods and movement rates at different times of day were done using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with hoc Bonferroni-Dunn test. The kernelUD method was used to construct 50% core and 95% full home range cumulative utilization distributions using R package “adehabitatHR in R3.5.1. Research results showed that released captive-breeding deer significantly increased movement rates and dispersal distance in fourth time periods (Fig. 1 and 3), and their 50% core and 95% full home range cumulative utilization distributions continued to grow after release (Fig. 4). All the information indicated that captive-breeding deer would continue to disperse and explore after release. Movement rates of released wild deer had no obvious changes (Fig. 1). However, their dispersal distance, 50% core and 95% full home range cumulative utilization distributions significantly reduced in third time periods (Fig. 3 and 4). That indicated that released wild deer returned to the area surrounding the release site after initial exploration. Released captive-breeding deer in general moved more during daytime from release to third time periods, but showed a distinct crepuscular bimodal activity patterns in fourth time periods (Fig. 2). Released wild deer had always been crepuscular bimodal activity patterns after release (Fig. 2). Results indicated that adaptability to new environment of released wild deer would be stronger than released captive-breeding animals.
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