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王子健,高明,吕洪伟,易华清,赵雪,段文斌,刘冬平.2022.北戴河朱鹮野化训练种群的繁殖和婚外配.动物学杂志,57(3):359-367.
北戴河朱鹮野化训练种群的繁殖和婚外配
The Breeding and Extra-pair Copulations of an Acclimatizing Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon) Population in Beidaihe
投稿时间:2021-06-11  修订日期:2022-04-06
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202203004
中文关键词:  北戴河  朱鹮  繁殖期  种内巢寄生  婚外配
英文关键词:Beidaihe  Crested ibis  Breeding season  Conspecific brood parasitism  Extra-pair copulations
基金项目:中国林业科学研究院基本科研业务费专项资金(No. CAFYBB2020SY023),中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所科研发展专项(No. 99811-2020)
作者单位E-mail
王子健 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与自然保护研究所 国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091河北北戴河国家湿地公园管理处 北戴河 066100 zjwang0828@163.com 
高明 河北北戴河国家湿地公园管理处 北戴河 066100 3080035068@qq.com 
吕洪伟 河北北戴河国家湿地公园管理处 北戴河 066100 173791235@qq.com 
易华清 河北北戴河国家湿地公园管理处 北戴河 066100 120010392@qq.com 
赵雪 河北北戴河国家湿地公园管理处 北戴河 066100 913111955@qq.com 
段文斌 陕西汉中朱鹮国家级自然保护区管理局 汉中 723000 709444766@qq.com 
刘冬平 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与自然保护研究所 国家林业和草原局森林保护学重点实验室 北京 100091 dpliu@caf.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了扩大朱鹮(Nipponia nippon)种群的数量和分布区,于2018年7月从洋县引进20只朱鹮在北戴河建立了朱鹮野化种群。2020年繁殖期,北戴河共有22只朱鹮,其中成年朱鹮17只,雌雄性比为1.1;实际繁殖密度为37.8只/hm2;人工巢的密度为40.0巢/hm2,人工巢筐内径为50 cm。2020年繁殖期,北戴河朱鹮共配对8对,其中6对繁殖成功,营巢成功率为75%;共产卵33枚,平均窝卵数为(4.1 ± 1.8)枚;出壳18只,孵化率54.5%;出飞13只,出飞率72.2%,繁殖成功率为39.4%,繁殖生产力为2.2 ± 1.2。与洋县饲养种群相比,北戴河种群首枚卵的产卵时间晚17 d,与两地温差相吻合。北戴河朱鹮的窝卵数显著高于洋县种群,这可能是由种内巢寄生所致。监控录像表明,北戴河1巢朱鹮的窝卵数高达6枚,超过野生种群平均窝卵数(2或3枚)的2倍,推测发生了种内巢寄生行为。此外,还观察到8号巢朱鹮同时发生了婚外配和种内巢寄生行为,婚外配雌鸟将卵产在该雄鸟的巢中,使得窝卵数高达7枚。此后在该巢中发现3只朱鹮轮流孵卵,以及2只雌性朱鹮并排孵于同一巢中的异常情况。北戴河朱鹮的种内巢寄生行为可能是因网笼内人工巢址密度较高但隐蔽性较低所致,而婚外配行为可能与种群密度和繁殖密度过高有关。本文有关朱鹮异常繁殖行为的研究结果可为野化网笼内人工巢筐的设置和野化种源的选择提供参考,并提示我们进一步关注朱鹮在环境压力下的表型可塑性和生态适应能力。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] To enlarge the population size and distribution area of Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon), 20 individuals were introduced from Yangxian to establish an acclimatizing population in Beidaihe in July 2018. The reproduction of the Crested Ibis has always been the focus of the research for its conservation. Since the introduction of the Crested Ibis into Beidaihe, we have been continuously monitoring the reproduction of this population, and discovered the phenomenon of extramarital mating and intraspecific parasitism for the first time. [Methods] During the breeding period of 2020, three high-definition cameras installed in the cage house were used to observe the Crested Ibis and relevant data were recorded. A nest with laid eggs was recorded as a breeding nest, and when we found that at least one chick fledged out of the nest, it was recorded as a successful nest. Accordingly, the success rate of nesting is defined as the ratio of the number of successful nests to the total number of nests, the reproductive success rate is defined as the ratio of the number of fledglings to the number of eggs laid, and the reproductive productivity is defined as the number of fledglings per nest. The breeding data of Beidaihe and Yangxian in 2020 were analyzed by Excel and SPSS19.0 software. The independent sample t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test were used for comparison, according to if the data were in line with the normal distribution. [Results] During the breeding period in 2020 in Beidaihe, there were altogether 22 Crested Ibis, including 17 adults, with a female-to-male ratio of 1.1. The actual breeding density was 37.8/hm2, the nest density was 40.0/hm2, and the inner diameter of the nest basket was 50cm. Of the 8 pairs of Crested Ibis, 6 pairs were successful in breeding, with a nesting success rate of 75%; a total of 33 eggs were laid, with an average clutch size of 4.1 ± 1.8 eggs; 18 eggs were hatched, with the hatching rate of 54.5%; 13 chicks flew, with the flegling rate of 72.2%. The reproductive success rate was 39.4%, and the reproductive productivity was 2.2 ± 1.2 (Table 1). During the breeding period in 2020, there were 10 pairs of Crested Ibis in Yangxian, all of which were successful in breeding, with a nesting success rate of 100%; a total of 24 eggs were laid, with an average clutch size of 2.4 ± 0.8; 18 eggs were hatched, with the hatching rate of 75%. The fledgling rate was 100%, the reproductive success rate was 75%, and the reproductive productivity was 1.8 ± 0.8 (Table 1). Compared with the breeding population in Yangxian, the spawning time of the first egg of the Beidaihe population was 17 days later, which was consistent with the temperature difference between the two places (Fig.1). Through Mann-Whitney U test, we found that the nest egg number of Beidaihe Crested Ibis was significantly higher than that of Yangxian population, which may be caused by conspecific brood parasitism. Surveillance video showed that the clutch number of eggs of the Crested Ibis in the Beidaihe No. 1 nest was 6, more than twice of the average clutch number of the wild population (2 or 3), and we speculated that the conspecific brood parasitism might be occurred. In addition, it was also observed that the No. 8 nest Crested Ibis had both extra-pair copulations and conspecific brood parasitism. The extramarital female laid eggs in the male's nest, making the clutch number as high as 7. After that, three Crested Ibis were found to incubate their eggs in turn, and two females were found to incubate in the same nest. [Conclusion] The conspecific brood parasitism of Beidaihe Crested Ibis may be caused by high density of artificial nest sites and low concealment in the net cage, while the extra-pair copulations may be related to the high population density and reproductive density. Our results of the abnormal reproduction behavior of the Crested Ibis can provide references for the setting of artificial nest baskets in the acclimatizing cages and the selection of wild provenance, and prompt us to pay more attention to the phenotypic plasticity and ecological adaptability of the Crested Ibis under environmental pressure.
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