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尹为治,李佳灵,刘辉,王友强,方正,饶晓东.2022.生境因子对海南五指山白鹇和红原鸡分布的影响.动物学杂志,57(4):544-553.
生境因子对海南五指山白鹇和红原鸡分布的影响
Effects of Habitat Factors on the Distribution of Silver Pheasant and Red Junglefowl in Wuzhishan of Hainan Province
投稿时间:2021-08-10  修订日期:2022-07-04
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202204007
中文关键词:  五指山片区  白鹇whiteheadi亚种  红原鸡jabouillei亚种  生境因子
英文关键词:Wuzhishan District of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park  Silver Pheasant Lophura nycthemera whiteheadi  Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus jabouillei  Habitat factors
基金项目:海南省自然科学基金项目(No. 320RC506),2021年生态保护与恢复——动物多样性监测项目
作者单位E-mail
尹为治 海南热带雨林国家公园管理局五指山分局 五指山 276171494@qq.com 
李佳灵 海南热带雨林国家公园管理局五指山分局 五指山 270393033@qq.com 
刘辉 海南大学林学院 海口 liuhui@hainanu.edu.cn 
王友强 海南热带雨林国家公园管理局五指山分局 五指山 2528703795@qq.com 
方正 海南热带雨林国家公园管理局五指山分局 五指山 446768008@qq.com 
饶晓东 海南大学林学院 海口 993676@hainu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了解白鹇(Lophura nycthemera)whiteheadi亚种与红原鸡(Gallus gallus)jabouillei亚种的生境选择。利用2018年9月至2020年9月在海南热带雨林国家公园五指山片区东北部获得的红外相机数据,分析生境因子对同域分布的白鹇和红原鸡分布的影响。结果显示,白鹇偏好低地雨林和山地雨林,红原鸡偏好次生林和低地雨林;白鹇分布的海拔、坡向较均匀;红原鸡分布海拔呈单峰,旱季分布海拔峰值575.8 m,雨季分布海拔峰值497.7 m,偏好阳坡;白鹇坡度选择呈双峰型,旱季其选择坡度峰值为19.7°和34.5°,雨季峰值为20.1°和34.3°;红原鸡旱季选择坡度呈单峰,峰值35.7°,雨季呈双峰,峰值12.5°和35.1°;白鹇和红原鸡二者温度选择均呈单峰型,旱季二者峰值均为20.3 ℃,雨季白鹇峰值为22.2 ℃,红原鸡峰值为26.1 ℃。两物种海拔的生态位重叠度最低,旱季和雨季,二者海拔因子上的生态位重叠度分别为0.375 1和0.353 2,温度和坡向的生态位重叠度较高。本研究结果表明,白鹇的环境适应性优于红原鸡,二者主要通过对海拔的选择来实现生态位分化,其他环境因子中也存在不同程度的分化特征。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] The Silver Pheasant (Lophura nycthemera whiteheadi) and Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus jabouillei) are two Galliformes birds distributed in the Wuzhishan of Hainan Province. The present study aims to reveal the effects of habitat factors on the distribution of these two sympatric birds. [Methods] We set up 50 infrared cameras and obtained data from September 2018 to September 2020 in the northeast of Wuzhishan of Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park (see Fig. 1). The chi-square goodness of fit test was used to analyze the influence of the number of infrared camera monitoring points on the observation value, Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the differences in resource utilization between species and within different seasons, and Friedman test was used to analyze the difference of vegetation resource utilization among species. Niche breadth and niche overlap were calculated using "shannon" and "morisita" of the Spaa package in R 4.1.1. [Results] The results showed that there were significant differences in the utilization of various types of vegetation resources between two species in different seasons (c2 = 76.324, df = 4, P < 0.05). The Silver Pheasant preferred tropical lowland rainforest and tropical montane rainforest, while the Red Junglefowl preferred secondary forest and tropical lowland rainforest (Table 1). There were significant differences in altitude distribution between the two species in dry season (U = 11 507.00, Z =﹣4.588, P < 0.05) and rainy season (U = 15 199,00, Z =﹣7.739, P < 0.05). The Red Junglefowl had a single peak altitude distribution, with a peak of 575.8 m in the dry season and 497.7 m in the rainy season and preferred sunny slopes (Fig. 2). In dry season, the slope distribution of the two species was significantly different (U = 12 414.00, Z =﹣3.743, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in slope distribution between the two species in rainy season (U = 26 030.00, Z =﹣0.556, P > 0.05). The peak slopes of the Silver Pheasant were 19.7° and 34.5° in the dry season, and the peaks slopes were 20.1° and 34.3° in the rainy season. As to the Red Junglefowl, there was a single peak in the dry season of 35.7°, with double peaks in the rainy season of 12.5° and 35.0° (Fig. 4). During dry season, there was no significant difference in the aspect distribution of the two species (U = 15 678.50, Z =﹣0.688, P > 0.05). In the rainy season, the aspect distribution of the two species was significantly different (U = 22 060.00, Z =﹣3.296, P < 0.05), the Silver Pheasant was evenly distributed in the slope direction, and the Red Junglefowl mainly moved on the sunny slope (Fig. 5). There was significant difference in temperature selection of the two species in dry season (U = 12 088.00, Z =﹣4.042, P < 0.05) and rainy season (U = 19 478.50, Z=﹣4.900, P < 0.05). The temperature selections of the two species were both unimodal, with peaks both at 20.3 ℃ in dry season, and 22.2 ℃ of Silver Pheasant, 26.1 ℃ of Red Junglefowl in rainy season (Fig. 3). The niche overlap of the two species at altitude was the lowest (0.375 in the dry season and 0.353 in the rainy season), and being higher in temperature and slope (Table 2). [Conclusion] Our results indicated that the environmental adaptability of Silver Pheasant being better than that of Red Junglefowl. Niche differentiation of Silver Pheasant and Red Junglefowl can be realized mainly through the choice of altitude. There are also different degrees of differentiation characteristics in other environmental factors.
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