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李斌强,高歌,李家华,段绍忠,范仕祥,张健嵩,罗旭.2022.云南高黎贡山南段高山生境的鸟兽多样性.动物学杂志,57(4):528-543.
云南高黎贡山南段高山生境的鸟兽多样性
Avian and Mammalian Diversity in Alpine Habitats at Southern Gaoligong Mountains, Yunnan Province
投稿时间:2021-09-18  修订日期:2022-06-29
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202204006
中文关键词:  高黎贡山  高山生态系统  红外相机  野生动物监测
英文关键词:Gaoligong Mountains  Alpine ecosystem  Infrared camera  Wildlife monitoring
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 32060118),国家林业局第二次陆生野生动物资源调查项目(国二动调2013)
作者单位E-mail
李斌强 西南林业大学生物多样性保护学院 2591494912@qq.com 
高歌 云南高黎贡山国家级自然保护区 保山管护局 保山 970033745@qq.com 
李家华 云南高黎贡山国家级自然保护区 保山管护局 保山 glgsljh@163.com 
段绍忠 云南高黎贡山国家级自然保护区腾冲管护局 腾冲 glgsdsz@163.com 
范仕祥 西南林业大学生物多样性保护学院 shixiang_fan@163.com 
张健嵩 西南林业大学生物多样性保护学院 1689857501@qq.com 
罗旭 西南林业大学生物多样性保护学院 xu_luo@aliyun.com 
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中文摘要:
      高山生态系统通常具有较高的生物多样性,分布着一些特有动植物类群。由于高山地区对环境变化较为敏感,因此该区域物种的分布及其保护问题备受关注。南北走向的高黎贡山地处全球生物多样性热点地区,但以往的调查多集中在中段,对南段的高山地区仍缺乏研究。因此,为了解该区域的鸟兽多样性本底、现状,以及大中型兽类和地栖鸟类的季节变化动态,本调查于2018年11月至2019年10月沿高黎贡山山脊海拔3 100 ~ 3 700 m区域布设红外相机进行监测。分别选择南斋公房、北斋公房和大脑子3个监测区域,有效相机工作日9 359台日,共调查记录到24种鸟类(3目11科)和19种兽类(5目14科)。其中,鸟兽物种相对多度较高的前3种依次为小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)、毛冠鹿(Elaphodus cephalophus)和血雉(Ithaginis cruentus)。鸟兽物种数有明显的季节变化:冬季物种数少、秋季和夏季多,全年以8月最高;动物活动强度同样存在明显的季节变化和种间差异。鸟类和兽类的物种丰富度季节变化与活动强度变化,可能与动物沿海拔梯度的垂直迁移和高海拔食物资源的波动有关。将本次调查结果与中段调查数据比较,鸟类Beta多样性的周转大于嵌套,而兽类是嵌套大于周转,说明两地物种组成差异以鸟类为主。综合考虑,我们建议将动物垂直迁移和活动强度的季节变化纳入自然保护区管理和保护中,并实施高黎贡山高山生态系统的全境保护。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] Alpine ecosystems are usually highly biodiverse and vulnerable to environmental changes, the distribution and conservation of species in these ecosystems are of great concern. Seasonal variation in community composition and species distributional ranges along alpine ecosystems are essential to inform conservation, however, remain poorly understood. The Gaoligong Mountains, one of the global biodiversity hotspots in SW China, home to various endemic groups of plants and animals, have been widely acknowledged for their high biodiversity. This study aims to understand how seasonal and monthly variation and activity regularity of large and medium-sized mammals and ground-living birds in alpine ecosystems at the Gaoligong Mountains using infrared cameras. We also compare the species composition of birds and mammals at diverse alpine ranges. [Methods] In the present study, we conducted surveys of birds and mammals using camera traps in the alpine areas (elevation ranges: 3 100﹣3 700 m) in the southern section of the Gaoligong Mountains from November 2018 to October 2019. A total of 60 infrared cameras were employed in three locations, including Nanzhai (NZ), Beizhai (BZ), and Danaozi (DN) (Fig. 1). [Results] We obtained 1 042 independent effective photographs from 9 359 camera-trapping days, including 865 photos for mammals and 177 photos for birds. We identified 43 species, including 19 mammal species from 11 families in five Orders and 24 bird species from 14 families in three Orders. The highest relative abundance index measured as detected rate was the Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens, 3.25), followed by Tufted Deer (Elaphodus cephalophus, 2.77) and Blood Pheasant (Ithaginis cruentus, 1.02). As to seasonal change in species richness, it was low in winter, high in autumn and summer, with the highest in August. The activity intensity of these alpine species had also noticeable seasonal and months changes, with differences among species. Beta diversity comparison revealed that birds and mammals showing different spatial distribution patterns between the middle and south section of the Gaoligong Mountains, the turnover components were higher than nested ones for birds while the mammals showing the opposite pattern. [Conclusion] Our study provided detailed records of ground-living bird and mammal species in alpine habitats in the southern section of the Gaoligong Mountains. There were significant seasonal variations in avian and mammalian species richness in the alpine ecosystem, which may be related to vertical migration along altitude gradients and seasonal change of food resources. According to these results, we suggested that altitudinal movement and seasonal variations in animal activity intensity need to be considered in managing the alpine ecosystem, and all alpine ecosystems in the Gaoligong Mountains should be protected.
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