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杨文浩,王淑红,林子路,张丽梅.2022.巴布亚硝水母无性生殖过程及形态变化.动物学杂志,57(3):321-335.
巴布亚硝水母无性生殖过程及形态变化
Asexual Reproduction Process and Morphological Changes of Mastigias papus
投稿时间:2021-09-28  修订日期:2022-04-04
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202203001
中文关键词:  巴布亚硝水母  水螅体  类浮浪幼虫胞芽  横裂体  碟状体
英文关键词:Mastigias papus  Polyp  Planuloid  Strobila  Ephyra
基金项目:福建省自然科学基金项目(No. 2018J01453),“十三五”厦门市海洋经济创新发展示范项目(No. 16PZY002SF18)
作者单位E-mail
杨文浩 集美大学水产学院观赏水族福建省高校工程研究中心 厦门 361021 1017573974@qq.com 
王淑红 集美大学水产学院观赏水族福建省高校工程研究中心 厦门 361021 shwang@jmu.edu.cn 
林子路 集美大学水产学院观赏水族福建省高校工程研究中心 厦门 361021 2512808192@qq.com 
张丽梅 集美大学水产学院观赏水族福建省高校工程研究中心 厦门 361021 3178240243@qq.com 
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中文摘要:
      以巴布亚硝水母(Mastigias papua)为研究对象,观察了水螅体无性生殖产生类浮浪幼虫胞芽、类浮浪幼虫胞芽变态发育为水螅体、水螅体横裂产生碟状体以及碟状体发育为水母体的过程和形态变化。25 ℃时类浮浪幼虫胞芽经过93 h后变态发育为水螅体。换用带有虫黄藻的天然海水并将培养温度从25 ℃升至27 ℃后,水螅体开始横裂,萼部触手环下方产生缢痕。水螅体横裂开始47 h后,缢痕更加明显,其上方部分发育为碟状幼体,后期碟状体搏动越来越频繁,最后释放。释放后的碟状体在实验室培养条件下21 d后可发育为水母幼体。巴布亚硝水母虽然只有产生类浮浪幼虫胞芽一种无性生殖方式,但繁殖速度较快,27 ℃时1个水螅体平均1 d可产生1.7个类浮浪幼虫胞芽,类浮浪幼虫胞芽可在3或4 d的短时间内附着变态。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] Jellyfish have a complicated life history including the asexual generation of sessile life and the sexual generation of planktonic life. Scyphozoan species usually have an obvious sexual generation, which is commonly named as medusa. However, the asexual generation is the key to ensure the population survival. Almost all jellyfish blooms were related to the strobilation of a large number of polyps in field. Therefore, it is particularly important to understand the asexual reproduction of jellyfish and the development process of ephyrae after strobilation. Although Mastigias papus is a popular ornamental species in aquarium and a common species in warm waters, knowledge about the asexual reproduction of M. papus is still very limited. Therefore, we made a detailed observation of the asexual reproduction including the formation of planuloid, the attachment process and morphological changes from planuloid to polyp, as well as the process of strobilation, and the morphological characteristics from ephyra to juvenile medusa. [Methods] Morphological changes were observed and recorded using stereoscopic microscope or inverted microscope. [Results] The results showed that, as a widely distributed species, M. papus only showed one style of asexual reproduction, producing planuloid at the base of the calyx (Fig. 3). Planuloids metamorphosed into polyps 93 hours after release at 25 ℃ (Fig. 4). When the temperature raised to 27 ℃, constriction emerged on the calyx of the polyp and the polyp transformed into strobila, and then the ephyra larvae were formed at the top of the strobila. The ephyra would release 47 hours after strobilation with more and more frequently pulses. It took 21 days for ephyra to develop into young medusae. [Conclusion] Planuloid producing was the only asexual reproduction mode for M. papus, but the reproductive efficiency was relatively high: each polyp could produce one planuloid in an average of 2 days, and planuloid could metamorphosize to polyp within 4 days. Ephyra in turn could develop into juvenile medusa within 21 days. The rapid asexual reproduction rate makes M. papus a popular species in aquarium and also make jellyfish blooms in nature.
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