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刘萌萌,闵霄,鲁长虎.2022.基于卫星跟踪的救护猛禽失联案例分析.动物学杂志,57(4):564-570.
基于卫星跟踪的救护猛禽失联案例分析
Analysis of Missing Cases of Rescued Raptors by Satellite Tracking
投稿时间:2021-10-13  修订日期:2022-06-29
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202204009
中文关键词:  猛禽  救护  卫星跟踪  致死原因
英文关键词:Raptors  Rescue  Satellite tracking  Causes of death
基金项目:江苏省高校优势学科建设工程项目
作者单位E-mail
刘萌萌 南京林业大学 南京 210037 lmm357@126.com 
闵霄 南京林业大学 南京 210037 1543745024@qq.com 
鲁长虎 南京林业大学 南京 210037 luchanghu@njfu.com.cn 
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中文摘要:
      对救护猛禽进行卫星跟踪,有助于了解猛禽放飞后的生存状况,评估救护成效。2019至2021年间,先后为6只救护猛禽安装卫星跟踪器。根据获得的卫星跟踪数据分析了个体失联前的活动轨迹以及中途停歇情况等。借助最后的位置信息对失联个体展开实地搜寻,分析其死亡原因。研究结果显示,白尾海雕(Haliaeetus albicilla)、红隼(Falco tinnunculus)、苍鹰1(Accipiter gentilis)和苍鹰2的迁飞距离依次为159.5 km、150.5 km、292.5 km和832.7 km;越冬时期红隼和2只苍鹰都更倾向于选择人类活动比较密集的区域,如农田、村庄、城市居民区以及城市湿地公园;放飞猛禽的活动量通常在100 ~ 500次/h之间;个体最终状态显示,猎隼(F. cherrug)因受困和饥饿死亡,白尾海雕因二次中毒死亡,日本松雀鹰(A. gularis)、红隼和2只苍鹰失联,原因不详。救护放飞的技术环节存在失误、放飞后遭到非法猎捕、跟踪器对个体产生的负面影响以及设备脱落或故障都可能导致救护猛禽放飞后失联或死亡,建议规范猛禽救护放飞过程,慎重选择放飞时间和地点,提高救护猛禽放飞后的野外生存率。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] Satellite tracking of rescued raptors is useful to understand the survival conditions of raptors after being released, it could evaluate the effect of rescue, and facilitate the development of scientific rescue work. [Methods] Six raptors of five species were installed with satellite trackers during 2019 to 2021, then lost contact after being released for a period of time (Table 1). The migration routes and habitat types of stopover sites of the rescued raptors were analyzed using the satellite tracking data. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to analyze the differences of resting duration of each individual in different habitats. If possible, the bodies of dead birds were searched based on the locations of the GPS and the cause of death could be analyzed. [Results] The results show that White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), Common Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) 1 and Northern Goshawk 2 had a long-distance flight (Fig. 1), with the flight distances of 159.5 km, 150.5 km, 292.5 km and 832.7 km. The Common Kestrel, the Northern Goshawk 1 & 2 were more inclined to select areas with frequent human activities during the wintering period, such as farmland, villages, urban residential areas, and urban wetland parks (Table 2). The frequency of activity of rescued raptors was usually 100﹣500 times/h. The individual may be in a state of stress during the release, and the activity will increase. When there were abnormal situations such as death, the frequency of activity tended to 0 times/h (Fig. 2). Final states of the raptors showed that the Saker Falcon (F. cherrug) died due to hunger; the White-tailed Sea Eagle died of secondary poisoning due to prey on the poisoned prey. The causes of others were unclear. [Conclusion] The illegal hunting, errors in the process of rescue and release, the negative impact of the tracker and the equipment falling off or failure may lead to missing or death after the release of the raptors. We suggest to standardize the process of rescue and release, carefully choose the time and location of the release, so as to improve the survival rate of the rescue raptors.
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