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汪文博,李莹,王晓妍,王庆.2022.中国蛭态轮虫亚纲6种新记录种记述.动物学杂志,57(4):595-606.
中国蛭态轮虫亚纲6种新记录种记述
Six new species records of bdelloid rotifers in China (Rotifera: Bdelloidea)
投稿时间:2021-11-02  修订日期:2022-04-30
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202204013
中文关键词:  蛭态轮虫  物种多样性  轮虫分类  新记录种  形态学鉴定
英文关键词:Bdelloid rotifer  Species diversity  Rotifer taxonomy  New records  Morphological identification
基金项目:广东省自然科学基金项目(No. 2021A1515010814)
作者单位E-mail
汪文博 暨南大学生态学系 广州 510632 wwb129@163.com 
李莹 暨南大学生态学系 广州 510632 ing.lee@foxmail.com 
王晓妍 暨南大学生态学系 广州 510632 wangxiaoyanst@163.com 
王庆 暨南大学生态学系 广州 510632 wq2010@jnu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      轮虫是浮游动物的重要组成部分,蛭态轮虫作为轮虫动物门的重要类群,因其孤雌生殖、低湿休眠和水平基因转移的特性成为国际上的研究热点。蛭态轮虫物种的形态学鉴定是进行其生态学、分子生物学和基因工程研究的基础,具有重要意义。本研究以广东白云山和火炉山为调查区域,共发现蛭态轮虫中国新记录科1科,即原轮科(Philodinavidae Harring,1913),新记录属2属,即原盘轮属(Henoceros Milne,1916)和双趾轮属(Didymodactylos Milne,1916),以及新记录种6种,包括有尾原盘轮虫[H. caudatus(Hauer,1937)]、巨趾原盘轮虫[H. falcatus(Milne,1916)]、多肉双趾轮虫[D. carnosus(Milne,1916)]、皇家敖突轮虫[Otostephanos regalis(Milne,1916)]、圆腹粗颈轮虫[Macrotrachela kallosoma(Schulte,1954)]以及长肌宿轮虫[Habrotrocha longiceps(Murray,1906)]。通过显微照片和模式图详细记述了新记录种的形态结构特征。本研究丰富了我国蛭态轮虫的物种记录,同时也为后续应用研究提供基础资料和分类参考。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] Bdelloid rotifers are microscopic aquatic invertebrate animals and widespread freshwater and soil inhabitants, being found from poles to equator and from shores to high mountains. They are able to use the thin water film surrounding soil particles, lichens or mosses and play a key role in microbial food webs. Exclusively parthenogenesis, horizontal gene transfer and exceptional resistance to extreme environments through anhydrobiosis make bdelloid rotifers ideal model organism. However, the taxonomy, diversity and distribution of bdelloid rotifers are poorly studied in Asia, especially in China, and the information on their occurrence is scant and insufficient. [Methods] In order to investigate the species diversity of bdelloid rotifers in Guangdong Province, we conducted a survey of these animals in Baiyun Mountain and Huolu Mountain. Samples were collected from water, mosses and leaf litter (Table 1). The water samples were obtained by a plankton net with 30 μm mesh size. Samples from mosses and leaf litter were extracted by washing the substrate with distilled water, then examined using microscope immediately. All living bdelloid rotifers were recorded and photographed using a digital camera. Rotifer body dimensions were measured from screenshots of digital videos. However, we only measured the size of one rotifer from each new record due to the rarity of these species. Photos and digital screenshots from videos were both used for species identification and illustrations. Mode pattern of measurement system for bdelloid rotifers were given in Fig. 1. [Results] One new record family of bdelloid rotifer in China: Philodinavidae Harring, 1913, two new record genera: Henoceros Milne, 1916, Didymodactylos Milne, 1916, and six new record species: H. caudatus Hauer, 1937, H. falcatus (Milne, 1916), D. carnosus Milne, 1916, Otostephanos regalis Milne, 1916, Macrotrachela kallosoma (Schulte, 1954) and Habrotrocha longiceps (Murray, 1906) were recorded. The morphological and structural characteristics of the six new record species are described by pictures and mode pattern, and their ecological information is also presented (Fig. 2﹣7). Notably, it is the second time that H. caudatus has been found in China since the original description in 1937, which indicated its limited biogeographic distribution and rarity; H. falcatus was confirmed widespread in Africa, Europe and Asia. All Philodinavidae species are considered to be lotic species. Compared with the original description, the spur of D. carnosus observed in this study is slightly wider, with no difference in other morphological characteristics. The morphology of O. regalis in our study differs from that in original description, with many short bristles on the neck. M. kallosoma has been recorded in many parts of Europe and is commonly found in water habitat. H. longiceps protects itself by building a nest around its body. This species is rare outside Europe. [Conclusion] At present, considering the results of the present study, there are a sum of 99 species of bdelloid rotifers that belonging to 13 genera and 4 families have been recorded in China. However, there is still one family (Coronistomidae) and seven genera (Abrochtha Bryce, 1910, Zelinkiella Harring, 1913, Embata Bryce, 1910, Philodinavus Harring, 1913, Anomopus Piovanelli, 1903, Ceratotrocha Bryce, 1910, Coronistomus ?rstan, 2021) not being discovered in China. China has a vast territory and diverse habitats, we suggest to implement a variety of experimental methods to broaden the scope and depth of survey on the bdelloid rotifers, and enrich the species diversity of bdelloid rotifers in China, and further explore the ecological value of bdelloid rotifer.
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