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贾伟,何青青,闫莎莎,罗涛,吴欢欢,邓怀庆,周江.2022.梵净山黔金丝猴与藏酋猴冬春季生态位分化初探.动物学杂志,57(4):503-513.
梵净山黔金丝猴与藏酋猴冬春季生态位分化初探
Preliminary Study on the Niche Differentiation of Grey Snub-nosed Monkey and Tibetan Macaque in Fanjing Mountain in Winter and Spring
投稿时间:2021-11-04  修订日期:2022-06-27
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202204003
中文关键词:  梵净山  黔金丝猴  藏酋猴  生态位分化  同域分布
英文关键词:Fanjing Mountain  Grey Snub-nosed Monkey, Rhinopithecus brelichi  Tibetan Macaque, Macaca thibetana  Niche differentiation  Sympatric distribution
基金项目:贵州省科技厅基金项目(黔科合基础-ZK[2021]一般095),生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(No. 2019HJ2096001006),国家自然科学基金项目(No. 32070523,3207030491),贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2018]2258号),贵州师范大学学术新苗基金项目(黔师新苗[2021]20号)
作者单位E-mail
贾伟 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 贵阳 550001 2465862467@qq.com 
何青青 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 贵阳 550001 18076226013@163.com 
闫莎莎 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 贵阳 550001 18076226013@163.com 
罗涛 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 贵阳 550001 18786413778@163.com 
吴欢欢 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 贵阳 550001 1227851529@qq.com 
邓怀庆 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 贵阳 550001 denghuaiqing123@163.com 
周江 贵州师范大学生命科学学院 贵阳 550001 zhoujiang@ioz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      同域物种的共存往往是通过生态位分化实现的,黔金丝猴(Rhinopithecus brelichi)和藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)为梵净山同域分布物种。为了理解二者的生态位分化关系,2020年12月至2021年6月通过在梵净山保护区安放的24台红外相机进行冬春季的野外监测,发现有18台相机捕获到藏酋猴,4台相机捕获到黔金丝猴,有3台相机对二者均有捕获。总共获得了黔金丝猴的照片23张,事件发生8次;藏酋猴的照片373张,事件发生95次;未捕获到黔金丝猴和藏酋猴同一时间段出现。通过海拔高度、采食行为、出现时间这些数据对二者生态位分化进行了分析,得到了同域分布的这两种灵长类动物生态位分化模式。调查结果显示,虽然梵净山冬春季黔金丝猴和藏酋猴的分布区域存在部分重叠,但黔金丝猴活动高峰早于藏酋猴约2 h;黔金丝猴更倾向于树上取食,藏酋猴更倾向于地上取食,避免了直接在食物资源上的竞争。二者通过活动节律和觅食策略差异实现生态位分化,从而更好地适应生存环境,以实现同域共存状态。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] The coexistence of competing species in the same area is often achieved through ecological niche differentiation. The Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus brelichi) and Tibetan Macaques (Macaca thibetana) occupy the same area in the Fanjing Mountain. This study compares the ecological dispensing characteristics of the two sympatric primary species, and it is helpful for better protection of the endangered species. [Methods] From December 2020 to June 2021, we conducted camera trapping survey in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, in order to explore the ecological position of Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys and Tibetan Macaques, with 24 infrared cameras placed in Xvjiagou, Huguo Temple, Fanjingshan Village, and Lengjiaba in Fanjing Mountain Reserve (Fig. 1). Analysis of differences in the daily activity rhythms of two primate species was performed based on images captured by infrared cameras. Based on the independent events filmed by the infrared camera, the relative activity index (RAI) of each time during each period time is calculated every 2 hours. The ecological niche differentiation of the two species was analyzed using the altitude, feeding behavior, and emergence time, and the ecological niche differentiation patterns of these two species of primates with the same domain distribution were obtained. [Results] The results showed that: (1) Eighteen cameras captured Tibetan Macaques and four cameras captured Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys, while three cameras captured both Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys and Tibetan Macaques. Photos and videos taken continuously by the same camera within 30 minutes were grouped into the same trigger event. A total of 23 photos of Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys over eight events were obtained, while 373 photos of Tibetan Macaques over 95 events were obtained. There were no photos of Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys and Tibetan Macaques appearing together (Table 1). (2) The distribution areas of Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys and Tibetan Macaques in Fanjing Mountain in winter and spring partially overlapped at altitudes of 969 to 1 277 meters, with a certain degree of competition (Table 1). (3) The activities of Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys were influenced by those of the Tibetan Macaques, and Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys were in a competitive position between the two; the peak activity of Tibetan Macaques occurred about 2 hours later, and the two primates showed a clear divergence in peak activity time (Fig. 2 & Fig. 3). (4) The two species exhibited different feeding behaviors (56.5% of Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys preferred to feed in trees, while 61.9% of Tibetan Macaques preferred to feed on the ground), and there was a clear differentiation between the two in terms of feeding behavior (Table 2). [Conclusion] The differences in activity time and activity space formed different dimensions of differentiation in ecological niches, and feeding on different foods helped them to avoid direct competition for food resources. It can be assumed that the co-distributed Grey Snub-nosed Monkeys and Tibetan Macaques in Fanjingshan Mountain have achieved ecological differentiation and coexistence through these means.
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