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孟子文,肖琳娜,雷宇,王磊,刘强.2022.云南纳帕海湿地越冬斑头雁活动区.动物学杂志,57(4):554-563.
云南纳帕海湿地越冬斑头雁活动区
Home Range of Wintering Bar-headed Goose in Napahai Wetland, Yunnan Province, China
投稿时间:2021-11-08  修订日期:2022-06-30
DOI:10.13859/j.cjz.202204008
中文关键词:  斑头雁  动态布朗桥  活动区  纳帕海保护区
英文关键词:Anser indicus  Dynamic Brown Bridge  Home range  Napahai Nature Reserve
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 32060120)
作者单位E-mail
孟子文 西南林业大学云南省高原湿地保护修复与生态服务重点实验室 昆明 ziwen_meng@126.com 
肖琳娜 西南林业大学湿地学院 昆明 453821676@qq.com 
雷宇 西南林业大学湿地学院 昆明 447017752@qq.com 
王磊 西南林业大学湿地学院 昆明 1165235581@qq.com 
刘强 西南林业大学云南省高原湿地保护修复与生态服务重点实验室 昆明 liuq03@mail.kiz.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      活动区范围反映了动物在个体水平上的空间需求,开展相关研究对物种保护以及理解动物与环境之间的关系具有重要意义。于2017、2018和2019年共3个越冬季,在云南纳帕海湿地对7只斑头雁(Anser indicus)进行了卫星遥测,运用动态布朗桥模型构建了斑头雁越冬期活动区,并结合遥感技术分析了水域面积变化对斑头雁活动区的影响。结果表明:所跟踪斑头雁的总活动区域中有54.7%位于保护区范围内,其余活动区域则分布于保护区外围的草地或沼泽中;斑头雁越冬期的平均活动区面积和核心活动区面积分别为(5.98 ± 0.63)km2和(0.55 ± 0.12)km2(n = 8,2017年越冬季1只个体数据、2018年越冬季6只个体数据和2019年越冬季1只个体数据),核心活动区面积仅占活动区面积的9.2%;最大活动区面积为8.22 km2,最小仅为3.38 km2,最大核心活动区面积为1.21 km2,最小为0.12 km2;斑头雁活动区面积受纳帕海湿地水域面积变化影响较大,随着水域由南向北退缩,沼泽及草甸增多,斑头雁的活动范围变大,且会向着水域退减的方向移动;2639号斑头雁在2018年和2019年两年越冬季相同时间段的活动区面积和分布均存在显著差异,2018年越冬季活动区的面积(5.98 km2)小于2019年(8.22 km2),核心活动区的面积(0.61 km2)同样也小于2019年(1.21 km2),并且其两年越冬季活动区面积的重叠度指数IO仅为0.31。鉴于斑头雁是H5N1高致病性禽流感的重要携带者和传播者,建议保护区增加保护区管理范围,对与斑头雁活动区重合较大的村庄,包括云南省迪庆州香格里拉市建塘镇的开松、纳公和打日觉等重点管理,避免家猪与斑头雁混群觅食,倡导在冬季时对家猪进行圈养,防止可能引起的禽流感交叉传播。
英文摘要:
      Home ranges could reflect the spatial requirements of animals at the individual level. Home range research is important for species conservation and understanding the relationship between animals and the environment. [Methods] During the winters of 2017, 2018 and 2019, seven Bar-headed Geese (Anser indicus) were tracked by satellite tracking in the Napahai Wetland, Yunnan Province. The dynamic Brown Bridge model was used to construct the wintering home range of Bar-headed Geese, and the impact of water area change on the home range of Bar-headed Geese were analyzed by combining remote sensing technology. The individual monthly home range differences were analyzed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test. [Results] (1) The total home range of the tracked Bar-headed Geese was 28.49 km2, of which 54.7% located in the nature reserve; the total core area was 4.17 km2, of which 55.3% located in the nature reserve, and the rest mainly distributed in the grass or swamps on the periphery of the nature reserve and the corner area of Shangri-La Airport and the urban area (Fig. 2); (2) The average area of home range and core area of Bar-headed Geese during the wintering period were 5.98 ± 0.63 km2 and 0.55 ± 0.12 km2 (n = 8, data for one individual in wintering season of 2017, six individuals in wintering season of 2018 and one individual in wintering season of 2019). The core area accounted for only 9.2% of the home range (Table 1); (3) The home range and core area of different Bar-headed Geese varied greatly, with the maximum home range of 8.22 km2 and the minimum of only 3.38 km2, and the maximum core area of 1.21 km2 and the minimum of 0.12 km2 (Table 1); (4) In 2018, the water areas of the Napahai were 8.54 km2 in February, 6.36 km2 in March and 5.00 km2 in April, showing a trend of monthly decrease. There was a monthly trend of decreasing utilization of water by the Bar-headed Geese, with a mean utilization of water of 59.95% ± 12.9% (n = 6), 55.12% ± 16.4% (n = 6) and 23.67% ± 12.3% (n = 3) in February, March and April, respectively. The alterations in the water area of the Napahai wetland had a significant impact on the home range of the Bar-headed Geese. The marsh and meadow expanded as the water area withdrew from south to north, and the home range of the Bar-headed Goose grew broader and moved in the direction of the retreating water area. (Fig. 3); (5) As to the Bar-headed Geese of Id2639, which was tracked both in wintering seasons of 2018 and 2019, there was considerable variations of its home range area and core area. Its home range in 2018 was 5.98 km2, smaller than that in 2019 (8.22 km2), and its core area in 2018 was 0.61 km2, also smaller than that in 2019 (1.21 km2). The overlap index (IO) of the home ranges between two wintering seasons was only 0.31 (Fig. 4). [Conclusion] As the Bar-head Goose is a major carrier and transmitter of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza, we suggest that the nature reserve should increase the management scope and concentrate on the local villages (Kaisong, Nagong and Darijue in Jiantang Town, Shangri-La City, Diqing Prefecture, Yunnan Province.) that overlapping with the home range of the Bar-headed Geese. To prevent the spread of avian influenza, domestic pigs should be raised in captivity in winter, and not be allowed to forage together with Bar-headed Geese.
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