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杨帆,芮俊文,杨明,何巧巧.2022.黑线毛足鼠能量策略的个体差异与权衡.动物学杂志,57(3):336-349.
黑线毛足鼠能量策略的个体差异与权衡
Individual Differences and Trade-offs of Energy Strategies in Phodopus sungorus
投稿时间:2021-12-08  修订日期:2022-05-04
DOI:DOI: 10.13859/j.cjz.202203002
中文关键词:  黑线毛足鼠  蛰眠  贮食  低温  限食
英文关键词:Phodopus sungorus  Torpor  Hoarding  Low temperature  Fasting
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(No. 32071518),沈阳师范大学博士启动基金项目(No. BS201841)
作者单位E-mail
杨帆 沈阳师范大学生命科学学院 沈阳 110034 250747068@qq.com 
芮俊文 沈阳师范大学生命科学学院 沈阳 110034 rjw_1230@163.com 
杨明 沈阳师范大学生命科学学院 沈阳 110034 yangming@synu.edu.cn 
何巧巧 沈阳师范大学生命科学学院 沈阳 110034 heqq@synu.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      为了应对由冬季低温与食物匮乏所带来的挑战,动物进化出了不同的能量策略,如迁徙、换毛、贮食、储脂和蛰眠等,但个体间可能存在差异,且不同策略之间可能存在一定的权衡。有研究者认为,黑线毛足鼠(Phodopus sungorus)的贮食和日蛰眠等能量策略之间可能存在权衡。本研究测定了低温短光 [(10 ± 2)℃,光照与黑暗之比L︰D为8︰16]及自由取食或限食条件下黑线毛足鼠的体重、摄食量、贮食量、食物摄取总量、基础代谢率、体核温度与活动性等7项指标的个体差异,并探讨摄食(包括贮食)、基础代谢率与蛰眠之间是否存在权衡,以推测黑线毛足鼠对低温与食物匮乏能量响应策略的个体差异产生的原因。结果显示,在低温短光、自由取食条件下,摄食量无性别差异,雄性个体的体重大于雌性个体,体核温度及活动性低于雌性个体。在限食阶段且低温短光情况下,出现了蛰眠个体,蛰眠个体在自由取食阶段的活动性高于非蛰眠个体,即活动性高的个体更可能产生蛰眠。蛰眠个体与非蛰眠个体的基础代谢率无差异。但是,在蛰眠个体中,基础代谢率与蛰眠频率负相关,活动性与蛰眠持续时间负相关。在非蛰眠个体中,限食程度升高后活动量显著增加。此外,虽然与贮食和蛰眠可能存在负相关关系的预测相符,贮食个体均不蛰眠,但是动物是否贮食、贮食量以及食物摄取总量(包括贮食量)均与蛰眠无显著相关。本研究表明,能量对策之间的权衡并非发生于贮食和蛰眠之间,而是存在于基础代谢率、活动性与蛰眠之间,不蛰眠的个体倾向于降低活动性以节约能量,而基础代谢率和自由取食阶段活动性高的蛰眠个体则拥有更低的蛰眠表达。
英文摘要:
      [Objectives] To deal with the challenges of the low temperatures and food shortage in winter, animals have evolved different energy strategies such as migration, molting, hoarding, fat storage and torpor, but there may be individual differences and trade-offs among strategies. Some researchers have suggested that there may be trade-offs among energetic strategies such as hoarding and torpor, etc., in Phodopus sungorus. Here we explored whether there are trade-offs among various energy strategies and analyzed the causes of individual differences in energy strategies responding to low temperature and food shortage. [Methods] Under low temperature and short light (10 ± 2 ℃, light︰dark (L︰D) = 8︰16), and ad libitum feeding or food restriction, we used TSE Lab Master system, food hoarding device and Vital View system (by G2 E-Mitter) to detect the basal metabolic rate, food intake, hoarding, core body temperature and activity of P. sungorus. Repeated-measure ANOVA, independent-sample t-test, paired-sample t-test, Fisher's exact test and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze differences of P. sungorus in body weight, food intake, hoarding, total intake, basal metabolic rate, core body temperature and activity. [Results] Under the conditions of low temperature and short light (ad libitum feeding), there was no gender difference in food intake (Table 1 and 2). The average body weight of males was larger than that of females (Table 1 and 2), and the core body temperature and activity of males were lower than those of females (Table 2). Some individuals expressed torpor at 40% food restriction (10 ± 2 ℃, L︰D = 8︰16). The activity of torpor individuals was higher than that of non-torpor individuals at ad-libitum-feeding stage (Fig. 4) but not food-restriction stages (Fig. 3c, d), that is, individuals with higher activity levels at ad-libitum-feeding stage were more likely to express torpor. Minimum core body temperature of torpor group was higher than non-torpor group, but tthere was no significant differencein average core body temperature at any stage (Fig. 3a, b, Table 3). There was no difference in basal metabolic rate between torpor and non-torpor individuals (Table 3). However, basal metabolic rate was negatively correlated with torpor frequency, and activity at ad-libitum-feeding stage was negatively correlated with torpor duration of torpor individuals (Fig. 1c, d, e). In the non-torpor individuals, the activity level increased significantly after dietary restriction (Table 5). In contrary to predictions, whether individuals ever hoarded food, hoarding size, or total food intake (including hoarding) did not significantly correlate with torpor. [Conclusion] Trade-offs among different energy strategies were not found between hoarding and torpor, but were found between basal metabolic rate or activity and torpor. That is, non-torpor individuals tend to decrease activity and save energy. Moreover, torpor individuals with higher basal metabolic rate, and those with higher activity at ad-libitum-feeding stage showed lower torpor expression.
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